Oral injuries related to Ice Hockey in the province of Alberta, Canada: Trends over the last 15 years

Abstract

Background/Aims

Ice hockey players of all ages experience oral and dental injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the rates of ice hockey-related oral injuries, time lost due to oral injury, and mechanisms of oral injuries in the province of Alberta during a 15-year period (2001-2016).

Methods

Hockey Alberta, the governing body for minor ice hockey associations across the province, collects injury report forms from injured participants in sanctioned events. Fifteen years (2001-2016) of this database was examined for total respondents suffering oral injuries. Data on total injuries, estimated time lost, and injury mechanism were analyzed.

Results

Overall, 12 433 ice hockey-related injuries were recorded. The oral region was the third most common body part (16% of total injuries) to be injured after the arms and legs. Oral injuries have been occurring at a relatively constant rate each year from 2001 to 2016, with a maximum of 174 and minimum of 99 reported. Oral injuries usually result in a short absence from the sport of 1 week or less and tend to occur through being struck by a stick or the hockey puck. This differs from total injuries, which tend to occur through collisions with the boards or other players.

Conclusions

Rates of oral injuries in Alberta due to ice hockey comprise a significant portion of the injuries that players sustain. Oral injuries occur mostly when a player is struck with a puck or stick, and the rest of the body is injured primarily through collisions. Dental practitioners can help ice hockey athletes prevent oral and dental injuries through encouraging the use of mouthguards (custom over boil and bite) and continuing to wear full-face protection.

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Research and Education Evaluation of the fit of zirconia copings fabricated by direct and indirect digital impression procedures

The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry

Abstract

Statement of problem

Intraoral scanners are effective for direct digital impression when dental restorations are fabricated using computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM); however, if the abutment tooth cannot be dried completely or the prepared margin is placed subgingivally, accurate digital images cannot always be guaranteed.

Purpose

The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the internal and marginal discrepancies of zirconia copings fabricated directly using an intraoral scanner with those fabricated indirectly with impression scanning.

Material and methods

Forty-five resin dies fabricated with a 3-dimensional (3D) printer were divided into 3 groups: direct scanning (DS), impression scanning (IMP), and lost-wax casting (LW). For the DS group, a resin die was scanned with an intraoral scanner (Trios; 3Shape), whereas for the IMP group, impressions made with polyether were scanned with a cast scanner (D700; 3Shape). The zirconia copings were fabricated in the same way in the DS and IMP groups. For the LW group, impressions were made in the same way as in the IMP group, and Ni-Cr alloy copings were fabricated using LW. The marginal and internal discrepancies of the copings were measured by cementing them onto resin dies, embedding them in acrylic resin, and sectioning them in a buccolingual direction. The cement layer was measured, and the Kruskal-Wallis test was used to detect significant differences (α=.05). A nonparametric Friedman test was also performed to compare the measurements of each group by location (α=.05).

Results

The mean marginal discrepancies in the DS, IMP, and LW groups were 18.1 ±9.8, 23.2 ±17.2, and 32.3 ±18.6 μm (mean ±standard deviation), respectively. The mean internal discrepancies of the DS, IMP, and LW groups in the axial area were 38.0 ±9.1, 47.0 ±16.3, and 36.5 ±15.8 μm, and those in the occlusal area were 36.7 ±16.9, 33.4 ±21.6, and 44.5 ±31.9 μm, respectively. No statistically significant differences were found in marginal or internal discrepancies among groups (P>.05).

Conclusions

Within the limitations of this study, the zirconia copings fabricated with CAD-CAM using different digitization methods and Ni-Cr copings fabricated using the lost-wax technique and casting produced clinically acceptable marginal and internal discrepancies. No significant differences were found among the DS, IMP, and LW groups.
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Single tooth anesthesia versus conventional anesthesia: a cross-over study

Original Article

First Online: 10 March 2018

I have been using the STA Wand for over a decade. It just works! MJ

Abstract

Objectives

The aim of the present study was to compare an electronic device, the Wand Injection System (Milestone Scientific Livingstone), with conventional anesthesia in terms of the following: pain sensation during anesthetic injection; effectiveness in achieving adequate anesthesia for a complete painless dental treatment; post-operative discomfort; and patient’s anxiety toward dental treatment.

Materials and methods

Eighty adults from 18 to 70 years were enrolled in this cross-over study. Each patient served as his/her own control being subject to two anesthesia techniques: conventional and Single Tooth Anesthesia (STA) performed with the Wand. A split-mouth design was adopted in which each tooth undergoing conservative restorative or endodontic treatment received anesthesia with both techniques at 1-week interval. Before anesthetic administration, the patients’ anxiety levels were determined. Physiological parameteres were measured before, during, and after the two injection procedures, and the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) was used to assess pain of injection, discomfort, and anesthetic efficacy. Differences in assessment of pain’s injection, discomfort, anesthetic efficacy, vital parameters (heart rate, blood pressure, and oxygen saturation), and state anxiety levels were analyzed using Student’s t test (p value < 0.001).

Results

The mean injection pain and post-operative discomfort ratings with Wand were lower than those with conventional syringe (p = 0.022 and p < 0.001, respectively). No differences were found in the assessment of anesthetic efficacy. Blood pressure and heart rate mean values were lower during the anesthesia performed with the Wand than with the conventional syringe (p < 0.001). The anxiety level was higher during the first appointment, independently from the device used for the injections.

Conclusion

The STA technique resulted in lower pain, discomfort, and lower intensity of physiological parameters.
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Risk factors associated with post-loading implant loss of removable and fixed implant-supported prostheses in edentulous jaws

Original article

Abstract

Purpose

This study analyzed risk factors for post-loading implant loss in cases of implant-supported prostheses applied to edentulous jaws of Japanese patients.

Methods

In total, 245 dental implant fixtures placed in 54 edentulous jaws of 46 patients performed at Niigata University Hospital were retrospectively analyzed. Kaplan–Meier curves were used to estimate the cumulative survival rate (SR) of implants, and multiple Cox regression analysis was used to identify predictive factors of implant loss. The following risk factors for implant failure were examined: age, sex, survival time, implant length, implant location, smoking habit, bone density, bone augmentation, opposing dentition, loading period, and type of final restoration. The Cochran–Mantel–Haenszel test was used to examine difference in survival curves of the extracted predictors.

Results

Sixteen implants failed during the observation period (SR = 92.8 %). Multiple Cox regression analysis revealed that male sex [hazard ratio (HR) = 16.1; p = 0.007] and use of maxillary removable restorations (HR = 12.7; p < 0.000) were risk factors for implant failure. Other factors had no significant effect on implant failure. The SR of implants for males (SR = 86.9 %) was significantly lower than that for females (SR = 99.1 %). The SR of implants for maxillary removable restorations (SR = 76.4 %) was significantly lower than for maxillary fixed restorations (SR = 99.1 %) and mandibular fixed restorations (SR = 97.8 %).

Conclusions

Maxillary implants with removable restorations and male sex were risk factors for implant failure among Japanese edentulous patients.

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